The European goldfinch is a charming little bird that is a familiar sight in gardens. It is a sociable bird, constantly on the move, and can often be seen in flocks when feeding. It has a light, bouncing flight and a delightful twittering call, often singing loudly as it passes overhead. Goldfinches tend to migrate south during the winter although more and more are staying in the UK partly due to the abundance of food in gardens, such as sunflower hearts and niger seed.
Breeding pairs: 313,000
Wintering birds: 100,000
Adult male goldfinches have brown mantles and white rumps. The upperwing is black with a bright yellow wingbar and white tips to the flight feathers. The tail is black with white patches on the outer rectrices and white tips on the median rectrices. The underparts are white with buff patches on the sides of the breast and flanks.
On the head the face is bright red with black lores and black around the base of the bill. The crown and sides of the head are black and they have white cheeks, ear coverts, nape, and throat.
Goldfinches have a white stout, conical bill, the eyes are dark brown, and the legs and feet are pink.
Female goldfinches are very similar to males but the red on the face does not extend as far behind the eyes as it does in the male, although there is some overlap so can be hard to tell in the field.
Juveniles are duller than adults and lack the face pattern. The mantle is olive-brown streaked with dark grey and the sides of the breast and flanks have grey spots. The head is pale grey with fine black streaks.
Goldfinches begin breeding in early spring and produce 2 or 3 broods a season. They will nest in orchards, parks, and gardens where there are tall, deciduous trees as well as open woodland and hedgerows.
The female builds the nest which is a compact open cup made from moss, roots, grass, lichens, wool, and plant down, lined with fur and feathers. They will sometimes decorate the outside of the nests with flowers.
Goldfinches lay 5-6 smooth, glossy, pale blue eggs with reddish spots and streaks, which are incubated by the female alone for 12-13 days. The male feeds her while she is at the nest.
Chicks are partially covered in grey down and are fed by both adults. The fledge at about 13-18 days after hatching but still depend on their parents for a few more days.
Goldfinches eat seeds, insects, dandelions, burdock, and thistles and use their slender, tweezer like bills for extracting seeds from plants and flowers. They will also supplement their diet with insects when feeding their young, Niger seed and sunflower hearts will attract them to gardens where they will swing acrobatically on hanging bird feeders.
Goldfinches inhabit most of the UK although they are less common in upland areas and most numerous in southern England.
You can see them anywhere where there are scattered bushes and trees and outside breeding season they will form nomadic flocks often spotted feeding in fields and on road verges.
Goldfinches are symbols of fertility and resurrection and frequently appear in medieval Madonna and Child artwork.
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